Every person bitten by a tick can be infected with the encephalitis virus. Fortunately, in the modern world there are tools that can fight this virus. One such remedy is anti-tick immunoglobulin. It is a colorless or slightly yellowish solution that is administered intramuscularly to a person. It consists of the blood plasma of healthy donors who were tested for the absence of HIV, hepatitis B and C before donating blood.
The maximum effect of immunoglobulin is observed 24-48 hours after its administration. The half-life of the infection from the human body is 21-25 days.
In addition to its main property – the fight against tick-borne encephalitis, 1 ml of the substance also fights about 60,000 different viruses. The drug is considered resistant (the body after its introduction begins to resist any viruses trying to penetrate it). The composition of whey contains proteins in a fairly large percentage, as well as glycine, which is useful for the body. Does not contain preservatives and antibiotics.
When should immunoglobulin be used?
There are two cases when the administration of the drug is necessary:
- You are going to visit places with a large concentration of encephalitis ticks;
- You have already been bitten by a tick.
When preventing tick bites, the injection must be made 48 hours before being sent to the area where they live. In this case, the drug is activated after about two days and acts for another 4 weeks, providing sustainable protection to the body from all viral infections. To provide even more reliable protection, you can get vaccinated against encephalitis again, a month after the initial vaccination.
If you didn’t have time to get vaccinated in advance, but the tick bite did happen, the drug must be injected into the body no more than two days later. At the same time, the maximum effectiveness of the drug is observed with the introduction of serum a day after the tick is sucked. On the second day, the probability of a complete stop in the development of the infection decreases, and on the third day the virus will already penetrate into the cells of the body, and immunoglobulin will not be able to completely overcome it. If the serum is introduced on the 4th – 28th day after the bite, it will not only not fulfill its function, but will also aggravate the course of the disease and can cause serious complications.
If the confirmation of the fact of penetration of encephalitis into the body was confirmed later than two days later, the drug should be administered after 28 days. During this time, the incubation period of the disease will end. However, in this situation, full medical supervision is necessary.
Immunoglobulin can be used not only with a tick bite, but also after the protracted consequences of the operation, accompanied by the penetration of infection into the blood. It is also possible to use serum during pregnancy, in case of a mother’s disease with a herpes infection, in order to avoid various complications and transmission of infection to the fetus.
How to apply?
Immunoglobulin is injected intramuscularly (in the buttock or thigh), and it is strongly recommended that a medical worker make injections and take into account all dosages, dates of administration, expiration date of the drug and the body’s reaction to it in a special journal. The hospital room must be sterile, as well as all used devices.
If the ampoule is already open and air has entered it, it must be used immediately and once. Do not use a damaged ampoule, and carefully monitor the expiration date of the drug. A cloudy solution containing any sediment or insoluble flakes should not be used. The drug should be stored before injection for two hours at a temperature of about 20 degrees. The rest of the time, the drug should be stored in a place protected from light at a temperature of 2-8 degrees. Serum should not be frozen and stored for more than two years.
Only a doctor can determine the correct dosage, since there are different forms of encephalitis in which different regimens are used.
In case of febrile encephalitis, 0.1 ml per 1 kg of human body weight is administered once a day for 3-5 days. Accordingly, 5 ml is injected per 50 kg of body weight, and 8 ml per 80 kg. In the case of a serious condition of the patient and painful symptoms, the dosage should be increased to 0.15 ml per kilogram. The total dose of immunoglobulin for the entire course for an adult should be at least 21 ml.
If the patient has a meningeal form of encephalitis, then the serum should be administered at the same dosage of 0.1 ml / kg of body weight every 10-12 hours for 5 or more days until the patient feels better and the symptoms of the disease subside. With this form of encephalitis, an adult should receive at least 70 ml per course. drug.
In focal forms of the disease, the patient is administered serum at a dose of 0.1 ml / kg of body weight every 8-12 hours, depending on the severity of the patient’s condition, for 5-6 days or more until his condition stabilizes and symptoms alleviate. In this case, an adult patient receives 80-130 ml per course. serum.
If the drug is administered for the purpose of prevention, and not treatment, then the vaccine is given once in doses appropriate for age:
- Up to 12 years – 1 ml.
- 12-16 years – 2 ml.
- Over 16 years old – 3 ml.
Immunoglobulin is considered a dangerous drug and is never dispensed from pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription. All due to the fact that medicines made on the basis of the blood of other people can lead to various infections and complications.
Serum should not be administered if the person is suffering from one of the following conditions:
- Bronchial asthma;
- Atopic dermatitis.
Patients who are prone to various manifestations of allergic reactions, the drug is prescribed with great care. Such patients should definitely use antihistamines. They must be used throughout the course, as well as within 8 days after its completion. During periods of exacerbation of an allergic reaction, immunoglobulin vaccination should be agreed with an allergist.
Patients with diseases of the immune system and diseases associated with the circulatory system also require special attention. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the doctor, when prescribing treatment, takes into account all the diseases of the patient and draws up the course correctly.
Possible side effects
As already mentioned, immunoglobulin is sensitive to allergies, so it can sometimes cause allergic reactions. In addition, there may be an increase in body temperature, pain and swelling in the area of the injection site. However, these symptoms usually disappear fairly quickly.
To avoid anaphylactic shock, the patient must remain in the treatment room for another 30 minutes…