The ovaries are the paired organ of the female reproductive system, which is responsible for the production of eggs and certain hormones. Hyperandrogenism of ovarian genesis is a serious hormonal disorder that requires long-term treatment.
Hyperandrogenism in medicine is the process of excessive production by the ovaries or adrenal glands of a woman of hormones-androgens, which are male hormones. The presence in the female body of a large number of male hormones negatively affects women’s health and is often an obstacle to conceiving or bearing a child.
Hyperandrogenism is a pathology that leads to rare and meager menstruation or their complete cessation, and as a result, to the absence of ovulation and infertility.
An excess of androgens prevents the normal maturation of follicles during the period of ovulation. The ovaries are overgrown with a dense shell, which prevents the egg from leaving the follicle every menstrual cycle. Due to hyperandrogenism, a woman may develop a hormonal disease – polycystic ovary syndrome. With this disease, hormones can be increased in the patient’s blood: testosterone, androstenedione, dihydrotesterondione, insulin and anti-Mullerian hormone. Causes of hyperandrogenism.
Hyperandrogenism of ovarian genesis is not a common disease. Statistics say that about 5% of women of reproductive age suffer from this disease. There are many reasons that can cause excessive production of male hormones in a woman’s body. The main causes of the development of the disease in medicine are considered to be malfunctions of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. These failures in the hormonal system affect the increased ratio between the hormones FSH and LH.
In turn, an excess of the LH hormone leads to excessive thickening of the ovarian membrane, which prevents the proper growth of follicles. Inadequate production of the FSH hormone affects the impossibility of maturation of the follicle, which causes persistent annovulation, which requires long-term treatment with hormonal drugs or surgery.
The primary symptoms of hyperandrogenism include the development of hirsutism in women – excessive growth of hair on the body according to the male pattern. Hair can appear on various areas: cheeks, chin, upper lip, chest, back, abdomen.
In some cases, women may develop baldness on the scalp. The face of women is covered with acne, pimples. The skin becomes dry and begins to peel off.
There are symptoms of hyperandrogenism that can only be detected with a special examination. These include increased levels of glucose in the blood and the hormone insulin. Women suffering from hyperandrogenism are often overweight and obese. Blood pressure often rises.
Hyperandrogenism in women reduces immunity. They are more likely to get sick with viral diseases, get tired quickly and tend to become depressed.
How to identify
To identify hyperandrogenism, a woman needs to visit an endocrinologist and gynecologist. Usually, an endocrinologist gives a referral for a blood test, which determines the level of hormones. With hyperandrogenism of ovarian genesis, the following hormones increase in the blood: free and total testosterone, prolactin, DHEA, DHEA-S, androstenedione and FSH levels. Blood in the laboratory must be taken on an empty stomach. A blood sample must be taken 3 times with an interval of half an hour between each sampling. Further, the blood is mixed and the hormonal level is determined. Significantly elevated levels of the hormone DHEA-S can be used to diagnose tumor diseases of the adrenal glands.
In addition to laboratory tests, an endocrinologist or gynecologist should refer the woman to ultrasound, MRI and CT. Such examinations should confirm the correctness of the diagnosis or refute it. If hyperandrogenism is caused by the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome, on ultrasound, the doctor will see enlarged ovaries with many located follicles enclosed in a dense shell.
How to treat
Hyperandrogenism must be treated, since this disease significantly impairs a woman’s quality of life.
If the patient is planning a pregnancy, the doctor initially prescribes drugs that normalize the level of insulin and glucose in the blood. These drugs include: metformin, glucophage, siofor. To reduce the level of male hormones are prescribed: metipred or cortef.
If, against the background of hyperandrogenism, a woman has developed persistent annovulation, the doctor will suggest ovulation stimulation with clomiphene or drugs containing the FSH hormone. Clostilbegit belongs to the first group of drugs. This drug stimulates the growth of the follicle. If it is possible to grow the follicle up to 18-25 mm, the doctor may prescribe an injection containing the hCG hormone to release the egg. However, not all women’s ovaries respond to clomiphene. If the ovaries do not respond to stimulation in any way, doctors transfer the patient to drugs containing the FSH hormone. These drugs include menopur and pregnyl.
When stimulating ovulation, it is important for the doctor to choose the necessary dosage of drugs so as not to cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. This is a process when an overripe follicle does not burst and develops into a cyst. Several follicular cysts can form on the ovaries, which cause sharp pulling pains in the lower abdomen and pose a danger to the life and health of a woman.
If a patient with hyperandrogenism of ovarian genesis does not plan pregnancy in the near future, the doctor prescribes a course of treatment with birth control pills containing female sex hormones – estrogens. These include: Yarina, Diane-35, Jess and Chloe. Contraceptives allow the ovaries to “rest”. They prevent the onset of ovulation, help the ovaries not to increase in volume. In addition, there is a theory that some patients managed to get pregnant immediately after the abolition of contraceptives.
Tumors on the ovaries are removed promptly. The patient needs surgery if medical treatment does not lead to the desired result. Often, doctors perform laparoscopic surgery for women, in which they perform resection or cauterization of the ovaries. Laparoscopic surgery is considered less traumatic, therefore it has a quick recovery period. Such surgical procedures allow you to restore ovulation in a woman and give a chance for a long-awaited pregnancy. You should know that after the operation, a woman is given a year by a doctor to conceive a child, since the disease is often after the specified …