The menstrual cycle can have many deviations from the norm. These include: hormonal disruptions, which are characterized by an unstable schedule for the arrival of menstruation; very painful periods; profuse, minimal or completely absent bleeding. Short-term and very scanty bleeding is characterized by gynecologists as a pathology of the menstrual cycle, which is referred to as hypomenorrhea.
Hypomenorrhea is not a disease, but a pathology of the reproductive system or some changes in the female body, which are characterized by a less than normal amount of blood loss. The physiological norm of the volume of blood that a woman loses during normal menstruation is 50-150 ml. With hypomenorrhea, blood loss indicators are significantly below this norm.
Together with this deviation, oligomenorrhea is often observed, when, in addition to reducing the volume of blood secretions, the duration of the menstrual cycle itself decreases (less than three days). If you do not pay attention to these changes and do not contact a specialist in time, amenorrhea can develop – the complete absence of menstruation.
Symptoms of hypomenorrhea
The external symptoms of hypomenorrhea include astringent discharge of a dark brown or, conversely, a very light color. The duration of meager periods is reduced to one or two days. Also sometimes there is an upset stomach, diarrhea, possibly the presence of nosebleeds.
To the internal symptoms that accompany hypomenorrhea, doctors include: deterioration in the woman’s well-being, headaches, nausea, pain in the lower abdomen and pelvic area.
The psychological symptoms of hypomenorrhea include: increased emotionality and excitability of the central nervous system, psychasthenia, depressed mood, apathy, decreased sexual desire, and others. All this is due to a change in the hormonal balance of a woman and a change in the level of estrogen in the blood.
If you observe these symptoms in yourself, you should immediately contact your personal gynecologist and undergo a complete examination of the body to find out the reasons that caused the disorder of the cycle and its treatment.
Types of lean periods
According to the criterion of duration, three types of hypomenorrhea are distinguished:
- opsomenorrhea – infrequent bleeding with intervals between them from 35 days to 3 months;
- oligomenorrhea – short-term menstruation with a duration of 1-2 days;
- hypomenstrual syndrome – scanty, short and rare menstruation.
Also, in order to make it more convenient to diagnose pathological menstruation, they are divided into the following types:
- primary hypomenorrhea. It is observed in girls of puberty, whose menstrual cycle is just being established, and whose menstruation is just beginning.
- secondary hypomenorrhea. It is observed in women whose menstrual cycle was normal for some time, and then became unstable and the bleeding became small.
One of the physiological causes of violations of the volume of menstrual bleeding are violations of systems and organs that regulate the level of the hormone in the blood (the main ones are the pituitary gland and ovaries). The causes of meager periods are a change in the cyclic reproduction of hormones, which contributes to insufficient blood supply in the uterus and the transformation of its mucous structure.
Also, the main causes that affect the volume of blood secretions are: metabolic disorders in the body; sudden weight loss or obesity; disruption of the endocrine system; sexually transmitted infections; industrial poisoning with gases and chemicals; taking contraceptives; operations of female organs; diseases of the reproductive system.
Hypomenorrhea can occur during pregnancy and breastfeeding. If, after fertilization, the egg does not have time to get through the fallopian tubes to the uterus, and there has not yet been a change in the hormonal balance, then scanty periods may be observed in the first month of pregnancy. But also the appearance of blood secretions during gestation may also indicate the pathology of pregnancy. Therefore, in any case, it is very important to be observed by a personal gynecologist during pregnancy.
Diagnosis and examination for scanty periods
The examination scheme for a woman with hypomenorrhea begins with an anamnesis, that is, asking the patient about the course of the menstrual cycle, about when the failures began, and also about her own well-being.
This is followed by an examination by a gynecologist, who observes the external features of the genital organs, makes smears from the genital tract, tests to exclude genital infections, as well as establishing the level of estrogen and other hormones in the patient’s blood and urine. In addition to studies conducted by a gynecologist, it is necessary to conduct an ultrasound diagnosis of the genital organs.
Only after a thorough examination of the woman, the gynecologist will be able to make a residual diagnosis, which was the cause of hypomenorrhea. And, already knowing the causes of meager periods, it will be possible to prescribe a full-fledged treatment focused on getting rid of the primary source of problems and getting rid of their symptoms.
Treatment of hypomenorrhea depends on the causes of its occurrence. If the amount of bleeding has changed due to weight loss, due to diets or obesity, then the treatment will be based on the restoration of a normal diet. If hypomenorrhea has developed as a result of a violation of the emotional state or caused by stress, then the gynecologist can refer the patient to a psychologist. A psychologist will help restore the quality of life by reducing the level of emotional stress, help to see the world in different colors, which, of course, will have a positive effect on a woman’s health.
If the causes of meager periods are violations of the functions of the pituitary gland and ovaries, then the treatment will be carried out with the help of hormones or physiotherapy. Homeopathic remedies have also proven themselves well, the action of which is similar to the actions of the hormones of one’s own body.
Helps with hypomenorrhea and massage of the lower abdomen with a woolen product. Movements must be performed in a clockwise direction in a circular motion.
The diet of women suffering from hypomenorrhea should consist of rice, cheese and milk. Infusions of thyme and St. John’s wort, as well as raspberry and tit leaves, also help well.
Alternative medicine recommends taking onion broth 20 minutes before meals (one and a half liters of water per kilogram of onions) for meager periods. A decoction of bone leaves has a good effect on health.
Prevention of scanty periods
To avoid hypomenorrhea, you need to lead a healthy lifestyle: exercise in moderation, eat not too much, but do not limit …