Improper diet, chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), dyskinesia of the gallbladder or bile ducts, increased pressure on the internal organs during pregnancy – all this can lead to the formation of stones in the gallbladder or ducts. Drug treatment for this disease is ineffective, it is mainly aimed at relieving symptoms and gives a short-term effect, and subsequently you still have to resort to surgical intervention.
Removal of the gallbladder is one of the most frequently performed operations in the practice of general surgery. Today, it is mainly performed laparoscopically, which significantly reduces the risk during the operation itself and shortens the rehabilitation period.
The consequences of removing the gallbladder for the body
The gastrointestinal tract is a well-coordinated mechanism. The bile produced by the liver accumulated in the gallbladder and gained the concentration necessary for the digestion process. During the entry of food into the body, the sphincter of the bile ducts opened, and bile entered the duodenum. After cholecystectomy, this process does not occur, the system of regulation of the bile duct is knocked down. The liver constantly secretes bile, and in an insufficiently concentrated form it goes directly into the duodenum and stagnates in the streams. This can cause a number of chronic diseases such as pancreatitis, duodenitis. In order to avoid negative consequences and allow the body to adapt to new conditions, you need to follow a diet and food intake.
General recommendations for cooking and eating
There are a number of general recommendations for people who have had a cholecystectomy.
- Eating should be done at least once every 3-4 hours. This will avoid stagnation of bile in the ducts and the development of the inflammatory process.
- The amount of food and drink taken at one time should not exceed 250-300 grams. Due to the weak concentration of bile, a larger amount of food will overload the work of the digestive tract, causing heaviness, pain, and frustration.
- The temperature of food and drinks should be average. Very cold or hot can cause spasm of the bile ducts, and as a result, pain.
- Fatty, fried and spicy foods are completely excluded from the diet.
- Food is steamed, mashed or chopped, baked, boiled and stewed.
Diet after gallbladder removal
The first 6 hours after the operation, the patient is not allowed to eat any food. This is due not only to the removal of the gallbladder, but also to the release of the body from anesthesia. With a strong thirst, the patient’s lips can be wetted with a damp cotton swab. After this time, it is allowed to drink small amounts of non-carbonated water, jelly, cranberry juice, dried fruit compote. On the next day after the operation, vegetable broth, light soups are gradually introduced into the diet. Starting from the third day, you can eat mashed vegetables, well-boiled buckwheat or oatmeal.
In the absence of complications, the patient is discharged home on the fifth day after the operation. The usual recommendation from a gastroenterologist is to use Diet No. 5 for the next three months. It is aimed at reducing the load on the digestive organs and creating gentle conditions for the liver. The diet eliminates foods that cause increased secretion of digestive enzymes, bloating, and also optimizes the patient’s weight.
Basic principles of diet number 5
- Bread and bakery products of yesterday’s baking are allowed. Lean pastries stuffed with lean meats, lean sea fish, apples. Biscuit cookies with reduced fat content, type “Maria”, biscuit croutons. Fried pies, cream pies, freshly baked muffins, puff pastry are completely removed from the diet.
- The first courses are cooked on the basis of vegetable broths, milk or water. Soups with the use of frying and cooked on the basis of meat broths are excluded. In the first months, preference should be given to puree soups.
- Meat is allowed in moderation, only boiled or baked. It is advisable to cook meatballs or steamed cutlets, pates. For this, skinless chicken, veal, beef or rabbit meat is used. Subsequently, lean pork can be introduced. Fatty meats, liver, smoked meats and sausages, canned meat are excluded. Six months after the operation, it is possible to eat sausages, sausages and boiled sausages of the highest grade.
- For the preparation of fish dishes, lean fish is used, such as hake or pollock. The cooking method is also boiled or baked. Canned fish, smoked and salted fish, caviar are excluded from the diet.
- Dairy products are introduced in the second week after surgery. Fat-free kefir, acidophilus, milk, yogurt, low-fat cottage cheese, hard cheeses are allowed. Sour cream is used to a limited extent.
- Almost all cereals are allowed, with the exception of peas, lentils, and beans.
- Vegetables are an integral part of the diet. Boiled, raw or stewed, they can serve as an independent dish or side dish. You should stop eating garlic, radishes, raw onions, white cabbage, sorrel, spinach and canned vegetables.
- All fat-containing sweets are removed from the diet: chocolate, chocolates, cakes, ice cream, etc. In limited quantities are allowed: marshmallows, marmalade, marshmallows. You can replace sweets with fruit desserts.
- During the day, you need to consume at least 1.5 liters of fluid. It is recommended to drink non-carbonated water, compotes, herbal tea, especially chamomile.
- Alcohol is completely prohibited. Even after a long time, its exposure can cause a severe attack of cholecystitis.
A strict diet should be followed for at least a year after cholecystectomy. This will give the body time and the opportunity to get used to the new working conditions of the digestive tract. Subsequently, it is allowed to expand the diet, gradually introducing the products familiar before the operation. At the slightest sign of exacerbation, medical nutrition should be returned.