Prolapse of the uterus: causes, symptoms, consequences

The uterus is an unpaired hollow muscular organ designed for bearing children. Like all organs of the human body, it has its own specific place. In the normal state, the organ is located behind the bladder and in front of the rectum, located in the middle part of the pelvic cavity. The uterine body is slightly tilted forward, forming an angle of more than 90 degrees with the cervix, the top of which is located at the level of the internal os. Any change in the ligamentous apparatus can cause the uterus to prolapse (prolapse) or prolapse.

The main causes of the development of pathology

This pathological process is caused by an increase in intra-abdominal pressure. Changes in pressure can be the result of both external and internal causes. In this case, there is always a weakening of the pelvic floor muscles. Medicine knows several causes of this disease:

  • congenital defects of the pelvic region;
  • connective tissue pathology;
  • great physical activity;
  • sedentary lifestyle, obesity;
  • chronic cough;
  • frequent constipation;
  • prolapse can be a consequence of childbirth, especially if there are birth injuries;
  • menopause (muscles noticeably weaken in old age);
  • heredity;
  • diseases such as myoma, fibromyoma, cyst (omission provokes an increased load on the muscular system).

In some cases, the cause of the disease may be heredity. And if among relatives there are women with a similar problem, it should be taken proactive preventive measures. Pelvic organ prolapse is one of the most common anomalies in the position of the reproductive organs. It can manifest itself at any age, and in more mature years, the likelihood of pathology only increases.

Signs and symptoms of the disease

Prolapse of the uterus has a lot of clinical manifestations, but at the initial stage, women often ignore the symptoms, mistaking them for inflammation of the appendages, approaching menstruation, or writing off ovulation. Signs of prolapse can be considered:

  • pain of a pulling nature in the abdomen, sacrum or back;
  • violations in the menstrual cycle;
  • urological complications;
  • sensation of a foreign object in the vagina;
  • proctological disorders (constipation, incontinence of feces or gases, colitis);
  • sensation of pain during intercourse.

Symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse manifest themselves in different ways, and any of the signs deserves attention. The lack of timely medical care will inevitably lead to the development of pathology. What will be evidenced by the growing symptoms. At later stages, the patient can independently detect a formation located outside the boundaries of the genital slit. Which indicates prolapse of the uterus (complete or partial).

Degrees of omission and their diagnosis

Pathology can be diagnosed with a routine gynecological examination. To determine the maximum degree of abnormal location of the organ, it is recommended to push. The appointment of colposcopy will allow you to assess the state of the entrance to the vagina and the vaginal walls. To exclude cystocele and rectocele, patients are advised to consult a urologist and proctologist. Also used for diagnosis:

  • ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs;
  • taking smears to determine the purity of the vagina and identify atypical cells;
  • hysterosalpingoscopy, diagnostic curettage of the uterine cavity;
  • computed tomography to clarify the diagnosis.

In modern gynecology, the disease is usually divided into 4 stages:

  • Stage I – the cervix slightly descends, no more than half the length of the vaginal canal, while the presence of a gaping genital gap can be noted.
  • Stage II – there is a partial prolapse of the organ, during straining, the cervix can come out.
  • Stage III is a partial prolapse; upon examination, you can see not only the cervix, but part of the organ itself.
  • Stage IV – complete prolapse of the uterus.


At the initial stage, before the development of complications, conservative therapy is used. The basis of treatment is special exercises that contribute to the training of the ligamentous apparatus and prevent further displacement of organs. One option might be a set of Kegel exercises. It consists in active, alternating compression and relaxation of the intimate muscles. The exercises of this complex are simple and accessible to perform in almost any conditions. The “bicycle” exercise, raising legs while lying on your side, squeezing pins or books with your knees may also be prescribed. Gymnastics helps to strengthen the anal sphincter and other muscles that form the pelvic diaphragm. It should be noted that the systematic nature of these exercises is of great importance.

Patients are also prescribed restorative agents that increase the muscle tone of the uterus, pelvic floor and abdominals. In the case of a significantly reduced level of sex hormones (when a woman is in menopause), hormone therapy is used.

Traditional treatment of stage II does not always give a positive result, and is mostly symptomatic. In such cases, surgical intervention is inevitable. Prolapse of the third and fourth stages, unambiguously, requires surgical intervention. To rule out inflammation, it is recommended to prescribe a course of antibiotics.

Surgery has two options. In the first case, the uterus is returned to its place, in the second case, it is removed. The second option occurs when the patient’s age exceeds 45 years or menopause has occurred. And also in cases where the first option, for one reason or another, is impossible. At an older age, when the operation is impossible, based on medical indicators, an annular rubber pessary is used. Being in the vagina, the device prevents prolapse. A pessary should only be used under the supervision of a physician, as excessive use can cause stretching of the pelvic floor muscles, as well as the appearance of pressure sores. The use of a pessary also includes daily douching.

Possible consequences

With this disease, there is always a violation of blood circulation in the pelvic organs, which leads to the formation of congestion, tissue edema, as well as cyanosis of the mucosa. There is also varicose veins, due to a violation of the venous outflow of the lower extremities. Possible consequences of an infectious nature that lead to damage to the urinary organs. In 30% of cases, proctological complications appear. The consequences include a deterioration in the quality of sexual life, and with late diagnosis …

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